Pathologists study the nature, cause, development and effects of disease. They provide and interpret laboratory information essential to medical diagnosis and patient care.
There are two main areas of pathology:
Anatomical: dealing with the gross and microscopic structural changes produced by disease in the tissues of the body and associated physiological abnormalities, one sub-speciality is neuropathology;
Clinical: dealing with the chemical and physiological variations of disease as seen in body fluids and tissues.
Their usual tasks are to examine microscope slides to identify diseases or other abnormalities, to diagnose diseases or study medical conditions using techniques such as gross pathology, histology, cytology, clinical chemistry, immunology and molecular biology, and to write pathology reports summarising their analyses, results and conclusions. They identify the pathogenesis, change and clinical significance of diseases. They analyse and interpret results from tests such as microbial or parasite tests, urine analyses, hormonal assays and fine needle aspirations, and communicate the pathologic findings to surgeons or other physicians. They obtain specimens by perorming procedures such as biopsies and fine needles aspirations of superficial nodules.
Pathologists diagnose infections, such as Hepatitis B or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by conducting tests to detect the antibodies that the patients' immune systems make to fight the infections. They may consult with physicians about ordering and interpreting tests or providing treatments, and conduct genetic analyses of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or chromosomes to diagnose small biopsies and cell samples.
Other tasks are to plan and supervise the work of the pathology staff, residents or visiting pathologists, and review cases by analysing autopsies, laboratory findings or case investigation reports, to educate physicians, students and other personnel in medical laboratory professions such as medical technology, cytotechnology and histotechnology. They manage medical laboratories and develop or adapt new tests or instruments to improve diagnosis or diseases.
They read current literature, consult with colleagues, and participate in professional organisations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in pathology.
Some pathologists perform autopsies to determine the nature and extent of diseases, the cause of death and the effects of treatment. They may be required to testify in depositions or trials as an expert witness. Others supervise and coordinate the performance and reporting of a wide range of diagnostic and screening tests and maintain a rigid system of quality control to ensure the accuracy of test results.
Many pathologists are involved in research concerning the nature and origins of disease and the possibilities for prevention and cure. Some pathologists teach medical students, nurses and other health science students.
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